Probing physics beyond the standard model with IceCube
IceCube is the world's largest neutrino telescope located at the geographical South Pole. Next to its astrophysical program, IceCube has a rich particle physics program including searches for phenomena beyond the standard model. This includes indirect searches for dark matter, searches for magnetic monopoles, mixing with sterile neutrinos, and non-standard neutrino interactions. An overview of this program is presented in this contribution.
(Université Libre de Bruxelles)
Neutrino Physics with the Novel LiquidO Technology
Lifetime measurements of excited states in neutron-rich C and O isotopes as a test of the three-body forces
This contribution reports on an experiment performed in GANIL in July 2017 with the AGATA tracking array coupled to the PARIS scintillator array and the VAMOS magnetic spectrometer. Aim of the measurement was the determination of the lifetimes of excited states in neutron rich C and O isotopes, in particular in 16C and 20O. For these nuclei, ab-initio calculations predict a strong sensitivity of selected electromagnetic transition probabilities to the details of the nucleon-nucleon interactions, especially to the three-body term (NNN). Strong sensitivity is expected, in particular, in the case of the lifetime of the second excited 2+ state, in each nucleus of interest.
The poster will present results of analysis of the data collected with the AGATA, VAMOS and PARIS detectors, for the reaction employing the 18O beam (Ebeam = 7.0 MeV/A) on a thick (6.7 mg/cm2) 181Ta target. Determination of nuclear state lifetimes in the range of few hundreds femtoseconds is based on the analysis of line shape and line centroid shift angular dependence observed in AGATA Doppler corrected gamma-ray energy spectra, in comparison with simulation calculations. Sensitivity and correctness of this method was validated by (re)-measured known lifetimes in 17O and 19O nuclei. Comparison of experimental lifetime of the second 2+ state in 20O with calculated values (with NN and NN+NNN interactions) will be presented, as well as results obtained for the case of 16C will be discussed.
(Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Poland)
Studies on radiation-hardness of CMOS integrated circuits for Phase I and Phase II LHCb Upgrades
The read-out electronics for complex particle detectors need to meet technological constraints such as operating at top performance and high-speed in environments with hard radiation: hard hadrons spectra and very large Total Ionization Dose (TID). Being exposed to a harsh mixt-radiation field, the semiconductor devices must defy progressive degradation and susceptibility to singular failures. In support for Phase I of Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) detector Upgrade Program, the LHCb Romanian Group has contributed to the radiation hardness qualification tests, data analysis and extrapolation for CMOS integrated circuits. ASICs like MAROC3 and SPACIROC2 produced by Omega Laboratory were tested. Commercial solutions like the FPGA integrated circuits - KINTEX-7 from Xilinx and the Axcelerator antifuse FPGA from Microsemi were tested, too. Radiation-induced effects dependent on the total ionizing dose (TID) have been measured and investigated. The Single-Event Effects (SEE) observed in the integrated circuits were counted and classified, and the relevant cross-sections of SEE calculated. Some mitigation methods were implemented and the efficiency to lower the SEE rate was quantified.
This report summarizes the Bucharest-group work done over five year in collaboration with LHCb and other international partners, and the experiments done at several international facilities where various beams of particles were used to qualify the CMOS integrated circuits.
We report the TID effects and thresholds in ASICs, the operational efficiency degradation at very high TID rates above 10 rad/s, the very fast room-temperature annealing process which was parametrized and recovers completely the device within the initial operational parameters.
Further, the reliability of KINTEX-7 FPGA was tested up to 1 Mrad (Si) and for antifuse FPGA up to 8 Mrad(Si) without any sign of permanent effects. An analytical model is developed for leakage current parametrisation at high TID rate, and is used to extrapolate to the LHCb environment for 50 fb-1 and beyond.
The KINTEX-7 FPGA was subject to an extensive ion SEE testing campaign for estimating the effects on operation of 3000 FPGAs in the Phase I of the LHCb Upgrade. We estimate a rate of 20000-30000 Single Event Upsets (SEUs) per hour in 3000 FPGAs, each with 19 Mb configuration memory. In total there are about 60 SEUs per hour critical failures. High current events ca be triggered by a very small fraction of SEU occurring in FPGAs configuration memory and by Single Event Latch-Ups (SEL). Online partial/full reconfiguration will be used as error mitigation for Upsets and power cycles of FPGA boards for SEL. The anti-fuse FPGA were tested in conditions similar to what is expected for LHCb Phase II Upgrade during HL-LHC runs.
The Southern Wide field-of-view Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO)
Very-high-energy gamma-rays are linked to high-energy phenomena in the Universe. The Southern Wide field-of-view Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO) is a newly formed international collaboration to design and build a new observatory to be placed in the Andes at an altitude of around 5000 m. This observatory, being at the Southern hemisphere, would be able to monitor the galactic center, search for transient events, explore very extended emission regions and alert/follow-up on neutrino and gravitational wave detections as well as other photon observatories. SWGO is entirely complementary to the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) that will be able to scrutiny astrophysical sources with unprecedented sensitivity. CTA has a limited field-of-view and low duty cycle which undermines its capabilities to observe transient phenomena such as Gamma-Ray Burst or flares from Active Galactic Nuclei.
In this presentation, I shall briefly discuss the physics potential of SWGO and some of the R&D options being explored to detect gamma-ray in a broad energy range (from 100 GeV to 100 TeV).
(LIP - Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas)
Laser spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the accelerator laboratory in Jyväskylä
The study of the atomic nucleus has occupied nuclear physicists for over a century now. Of the many experimental tools that were over the decades, laser spectroscopy has been pivotal in expanding our knowledge, by bringing to light many new and exciting phenomena. Of all elements, the so-called refractory elements have been studied the least so far. These elements, found mostly in groups IV-VIII of the periodic table, are challenging because short-lived species tend to undergo radioactive decay before they can be delivered to the experimental apparatuses. Furthermore, for laser spectroscopy, and additional challenge arises due the complex atomic structure that these elements possess.
In this poster, I will give an overview of the laser spectroscopy programme at the IGISOL facility, and highlight how it deals with the difficulties listed above. Just in the past year, successful measurements were performed on exotic silver, yttrium, niobium and palladium isotopes. This poster will discuss some of these measurements and results in detail. An outlook to future measurements, in various stages of preparation, will be given.
Ruben de Groote
(University of Jyvaskyla)
Tools and environments for complementary activities in astrophysics and particle physics
One overarching objective of science is to further our understanding of the universe, from its early stages to its current state and future evolution. This depends on gaining insight on the universe’s most macroscopic components, for example galaxies and stars, as well as describing its smallest components, namely elementary particles and nuclei and their interactions. It is clear that this endeavor requires combined expertise from the fields of astroparticle physics, particle physics and nuclear physics. Pursuing common scientific drivers also require mastering challenges related to instrumentation (e.g. beams and detectors), data acquisition, selection and analysis, and making data and results available to the broader science communities. Joint work and recognition of these “foundational” topics will help all communities grow towards their individual and common scientific goals. This contribution presents the work that various communities and experiments are doing to solve one of the many common challenges faced by particle physics and astrophysics: the necessity of dealing with large, sometimes heterogeneous datasets and derive insight from them in short periods of time.
Radio antennas to detect high-energy Gammas, Neutrinos, Cosmic Rays
The radio detection technique is successfully used for the measurement of air showers initiated by charged cosmic rays. So far, this is applicable to cosmic ray primaries with energies above 40 PeV. An extension of this detection method can be made for the observation of air showers originating from neutrinos and gamma rays of high energy. Recent results from a simulation study performed for the IceTop radio enhancement, at the South Pole, shows that it is possible to lower the radio-detection threshold down to a PeV. This allows for the detection of gamma rays of the highest energy using the radio technique. It is also possible to measure air showers that originate from earth-skimming tau neutrinos by measuring their radio signals. Upcoming experiments like GRAND focus on the measurement of these air showers using a large-scale radio array installed on mountain ranges. The radio detection technique therefore is a promising method to observe these three messengers of the Universe in a consistent manner. An overview of this will be shown.
Aswathi Balagopal V.
(Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
Modeling of AlGaN/GaN High-electron-mobility transistor using gate field-plate technology for high-frequency applications
(Département de Technologie, Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université de Djilali Bounaâma- Khemis miliana, Ain Defla, 44225 Algeria)
New physics searches in neutron beta decay
(Stefan Meyer Institute Vienna)
Unraveling the properties of the quark-gluon plasma
This poster will present studies of a new form of nuclear matter called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This medium is believed to be present during the early stages of the evolution of the Universe, just few microseconds after the Big Bang. Today, it can be recreated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC at BNL, or at the LHC at CERN. One of the most suitable probes to study this medium is the anisotropic flow, which measures azimuthal correlations of final emitted particles with respect to a common symmetry plane. Using this observable, we can access the properties of the shortly-lived medium, such as the shear viscosity over entropy density eta/s, which was found to be close to a universal lower bound for any liquid. Recently, signatures that were believed to originate from the QGP, were also observed in small collision systems, such as pp and p-A, which were not considered to be able to create such a medium. Studies of anisotropic flow can bring more information into this puzzle.
Katarina Krizkova Gajdosova
Search for ultra-high energy photons with Telescope Array
We present results of a search for diffuse photons with energies higher than 1 EeV based on Telescope Array experiment surface detector data and a machine learning event analysis technique. Results of a search for point sources of photons for all directions in the Northern hemisphere and a search for some target classes of photon sources are also presented.
(INR RAS & ULB)
Charge radii of short-lived radionuclides: The physics addressed by novel experimental techniques such as MIRACLS
Short-lived radionuclides are intriguing probes for a diverse spectrum of physics topics such as the structure of atomic nuclei or nucleosynthesis, the formation of the chemical elements. Moreover, precision studies involving radionuclides impose stringent limits on physics beyond the standard model of particle physics which are complementary and competitive to associated constraints from the high-energy frontier at the LHC.
Among the many nuclear observables, charge radii of atomic nuclei are of particular importance. Since they can be accessed in a nuclear-model independent way from laser-spectroscopy work, nuclear rms charge radii Rc of nuclides far away from stability serve as critical benchmarks for modern nuclear structure theory. In combination with other observables, they relate to the nuclear equation of state which influences the size of neutron stars. Moreover, nuclear charge radii have become crucial ingredients in searches for physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. For instance, precise experimental data of Rc enters through isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections for superallowed nuclear 𝛽 decays into the determination of the CKM matrix element Vud.
This poster will introduce the physics questions accessible via charge radii of short-lived radionuclides as a strong motivation to extend respective studies towards ‘uncharted territory’ on the nuclear chart (as far as Rc is concerned). However, future work will require advances in experimental techniques, such as the novel, ERC supported Multi Ion Reflection Apparatus for Collinear Laser Spectroscopy (MIRACLS), in order to probe the most ‘exotic’ radionuclides with high-resolution laser spectroscopy.
Uncertainties in the production of p nuclides in the fast proton induced p - processes
The fast proton induced p – processes reactions play a key role in the astrochemical elements yields of the big bang nucleosynthesis for standard cosmology. Astrophysical concurrence of several p - process mechanisms in the production of p – nuclei was analyzed for proton energy up to 25 MeV.
Cross sections of proton induced reactions and contribution of each nuclear reaction mechanism for each process are evaluated theoretically and measured experimentally at Electrostatic Generator EG-5 from FLNP for incident protons up to 5 - 10 MeV. For protons up to 4-8 MeV compound processes are dominant and they are described applying Hauser – Feshbach statistical approach. At higher energies direct and pre-equilibrium mechanisms cannot be neglected. Contribution to the cross section of direct mechanism was determined using DWBA approach and pre-equilibrium processes by exciton model. Parameters of optical potential and levels density for incident and emergent channels were also extracted. Cross sections, parameters of potentials and levels density are of a great importance for astrophysical reactions rates estimation and for estimation of the astrochemical elements abundance.
The cross section – measurement uncertainties were assigned individually to a larger set of experimental parameters varied simultaneously in post-processing in an extended nuclear reaction modelling. The statistical uncertainties reduction was done by Talys using a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure based on the EXFOR database and they were in fair agreement with the standards. The uncertainties in the nuclear element abundances originating from the combined effect of experimental and theoretical errors leading to total uncertainties in the final abundances were determined.
Present results are obtained in the frame of the programs dedicated to nuclear reactions for astrophysics developed at JINR Dubna basic facilities.
Education and Outreach activities on Astroparticle Physics in Romania
In 2014, Romania became full member of the Pierre Auger Collaboration, represented by four national institutions in Bucharest. Since then at the ISS we have in addition joined the task force of Auger in spreading physics studied at the Pierre Auger Observatory through education and outreach activities. In this poster, I’ll present such activities we’ve contributed with in the field of Astroparticle Physics in Romania, in various scenarios, such as: student’s practical work, week of different school, workshops with physics teachers and pupils, public talks or expositions given at national science festivals, European Researchers Nights, European Space Expo, and last but not least communicating science through art (audio-visual) and multimedia. Through the various experiences we’ve gathered so far, we acknowledged the need of communicating science for continuous education at any age, any level of knowledge, and in synergy with other fields.
Isar P. Gina
(Institute of Space Science, Bucharest)
Rare event searches with cryogenic detectors - COSINUS, CRESST and NUCLEUS
Recently the coherent scattering of neutrinos off nuclei (CNNS) was experimentally proven. The signal characteristics are very similar to the anticipated scatterings of dark matter particles off nuclei. In particular both share a recoil spectrum steeply falling with energy and ending at maximally a few keV. Thus, also the experimental requirements are similar: a low energy threshold for nuclear recoils combined with background suppression. Cryogenic detectors meet both requirements. The CRESST direct dark matter search achieved a threshold of 30eV in 24g CaWO4-crystals pushing the sensitivity of direct detection experiments down to 160MeV. COSINUS uses the same readout technology, but aims to perform a cross-check of the long-standing dark matter claim by the DAMA/LIBRA. They observe an annual modulation of the event rate which agrees in period and rate with the expectation for dark matter. To make the cross-check model-independent, COSINUS uses - like DAMA/LIBRA - NaI crystals as target material, but COSINUS operates them as scintillating cryogenic calorimeters. This operating mode not only provides a lower nuclear recoil threshold, but also yields particle identification on event-by-event basis, both unique features for NaI-based detectors. NUCLEUS is another application of CRESST technology and uses miniaturized CaWO4 or Al2O3 detectors to study CNNS at very low recoil energies O(10eV) which allows precision test of the Standard Model (e.g. Weinberg angle and neutrino magnetic dipole moment) and also the search for non-standard interactions. The working principle of cryogenic scintillating calorimeters will be presented, as well as the physics cases and current status of the three experiments.
(HEPHY & TU Vienna)
Cold muonium beam for atomic physics and gravity experiments
We are investigating methods to create a novel muonium (Mu) source, based on μ+ → Mu conversion in superfluid helium (SFHe), which has the potential of providing high brightness Mu beams for next generation laser spectroscopy experiments. We are also investigating the feasibility of using such sources for measuring the gravitational interaction of Mu. The positive muon (μ+) which is dominating the Mu mass is not only an elementary antiparticle, but a second-generation lepton too. This makes a gravity experiment highly motivated, and complementary to gravitational studies of antihydrogen and positronium.
State-of-the-art Mu sources (like silica aerogel, mesoporous SiO2) emit Mu atoms with a large (thermal) energy distribution, and wide (∼ cos θ) angular distribution. Cooling of these porous samples below 100 K results in rapidly declining numbers of vacuum-emitted muonium due to decreased mobility, and atoms sticking to the pore walls.
Our proposed method relies on stopping μ+ in a thin layer of SFHe, and forming Mu by capturing an electron from the ionization trail. A fraction of the Mu diffuses to the SFHe surface within their lifetime, where emission into vacuum occurs. The velocity of the emitted Mu (∼ 6 mm/μs) is given by their large chemical potential (E/kB ∼ 270 K) in SFHe, while their thermal distribution determines the transverse momentum.
In this poster, methods and challenges to create such SFHe Mu sources, the present status, and the feasibility of an antimatter gravity experiment will be discussed.